SLOW FOOD

 

Motto                    Good, clean, and fair.

Formation             1986 in Bra, Piedmont, Italy

Headquarters        Bra, Italy

President               Carlo Petrini

 

 

Slow Food is a non-profit organization, founded in 1989 in Bra ( Piedmont - Italy), by Carlo Petrini.  to prevent the disappearance of local food cultures and traditions.

Slow Food has grown into a global movement involving millions of people in over 160 countries, working to ensure everyone has access to good, clean and fair food.

Promoted as an alternative to fast food, it strives to preserve traditional and regional cuisine and encourages farming of plants, seeds, and livestock characteristic of the local ecosystem.

Founder and President Carlo Petrini, believes "everyone has the right to good, clean, and fair food."

Good  = high quality product with a flavorful taste

Clean = the naturalness in the way the product was produced and transported

Fair    = adequate pricing and treatment for both the consumers and producers.

 

Why the name Slow Food?
It’s a way of saying no to the rise of fast food and fast life. Slow Food means living an unhurried life, taking time to enjoy simple pleasures, starting at the table.

 

Why the snail symbol?
The snail was chosen because it moves slowly, calmly eating its way through life.

It is also a culinary specialty in the area around the town of Bra, where the Slow Food movement was born.

 

Slow Food philosophy

Slow Food envisions a world in which all people can access and enjoy food that is good for them, good for those who grow it and good for the planet.

Its concept of food is defined by three principles: good, clean and fair.

 

  • GOOD: quality, flavorsome and healthy food
  • CLEAN: production that does not harm the environment
  • FAIR: accessible prices for consumers and fair conditions and pay for producers

 

 

SLOW FOOD MOVEMENT

 

Slow Food was started by Carlo Petrini and a group of activists in the 1980s with the initial aim to defend regional traditions, good food, gastronomic pleasure and a slow pace of life.

Promoted as an alternative to fast food (its forerunner organization, Agricola, tried to oppose to the opening of a McDonald's near the Spanish Steps in Rome in 1986), industrial food production, and globalization, the movement strives to preserve traditional and regional cuisine and encourages farming of plants, seeds, and livestock characteristic of the local ecosystem.

 

Today Slow Food represents a global movement involving thousands of projects and millions of people in over 160 countries.

Slow Food incorporates a series of objectives within its mission, including:

·        developing an "Ark of Taste".

This is an international catalogue of endangered heritage foods designed to preserve at-risk foods that are sustainably produced, unique in taste, and part of a distinct ecoregion.

The Ark of Taste aims to promote the growing and eating of foods which are sustainable and preserve biodiversity in the human food chain.

Foods included in the list are intended to be "culturally or historically linked to a specific region, locality, ethnicity or traditional production practice” in addition to being rare.

Since the foundation of the Ark in 1996, 4866 products (October 2018) from over 149 countries have been included and growing daily. The list includes also a great many livestock breeds, as well as vegetable and fruit cultivars (among Ligurian products present in the Ark of taste we can name: Anchovies of Monterosso, Garlic of Vessalico, rose syrup, etc).

·        creating "Praesidia" grassroots organizations to promote slow foods to the public;

·        forming and sustaining seed banks to preserve heirloom varieties in cooperation with local food systems;

·        preserving and promoting local and traditional food products, along with their lore and preparation

·        organizing small-scale processing (including facilities for slaughtering and short run products)

Founder and President Carlo Petrini, believes "everyone has the right to good, clean, and fair food."

Good, meaning a high quality product with a flavorful taste

Clean meaning the naturalness in the way the product was produced and transported

Fair, meaning adequate pricing and treatment for both the consumers and producers.

Criticisms

Some of the criticisms aimed at the movement are socioeconomic. For example only the more affluent society can afford the time and expense of developing "taste", "knowledge", and "discernment". SlowFood's stated aim of preserving itself from the "contagion of the multitude" can be seen as elitist.

 

Why the name Slow Food?
It’s a way of saying no to the rise of fast food and fast life. Slow Food means living an unhurried life, taking time to enjoy simple pleasures, starting at the table.

 
Why the snail symbol?
The snail was chosen because it moves slowly, calmly eating its way through life. It also happens to be a culinary specialty in the area around the northern Italian town of Bra, where the Slow Food movement was born and where the headquarter of SF is located.

Why did Slow Food begin in Bra?
Bra is the hometown of Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini. Located in a region famous for its wines, white truffles, cheese and beef; it proved to be the perfect incubator for the Slow Food movement.

 

Global headquarters are located in Bra, near Turin, Italy. Numerous publications are put out by the organisation, in several languages around the world. Recent efforts at publicity include the world's largest food and wine fair, the Salone del Gusto in Turin, a biennial cheese fair in Bra called Cheese, the Genoan fish festival called SlowFish, and Turin's Terra Madre ("Mother Earth") world meeting of food communities.

 

In 2004, Slow Food opened a University of Gastronomic Sciences at Pollenzo, in Piedmont, whose goal is to promote awareness of good food and nutrition

 

 

SLOW FISH

 

 

Organized by Slow Food Italy and the Liguria Region, Slow Fish is an international event dedicated to fish and marine resources, combining the pleasure of eating with good fishing practices, scientific knowledge, taste education and the protection of biodiversity.

All the protagonists – from the fisherman to the chef, from the fish seller to the consumer, from the tourist to the marine biologist are involved– since saving the sea is the first step for feeding the planet.

It is a big workshop, where artisans and chefs together with marine biologists and fishermen guide the tasting. Visitors can assist to Cooking lessons, held by the Master of Food teachers and or attend conferences about the Italian and international cuisine.

During the days of the event, Genoa becomes a hub for fishermen, craftsmen, cooks, academics, researchers and representatives of institutions from around the world all coming together to share and support a good, clean and fair seafood chain that safeguards marine biodiversity, the health of the social fabric and the environment.

Slow Fish is dedicated to everyone who wants to know more about fish consumption, its effects on our health and the impact the fishing industry has on marine ecosystems. The key to Slow Fish’s success is its understandable language and playful approach based on the pleasure of eating.

With fishing, just as with agriculture, Slow Food strongly believes that every individual can contribute in his or her own small way to changing the mechanisms of a globalized food system based on the intensive exploitation of resources.

 

Slow Food, with its strong local and international experience, is convinced that we can only bring about change by returning to the origins of food, putting curiosity and pleasure at the service of responsible choices.

 

 

 

 

MAN AND FOOD

Food is life and food is history. Without food there would be no history of man. The food we eat today is the result of our evolution.

Prehistoric man lived on vegetables, hunting and fishing and he used to eat raw food. Later he began to cook food to make it more digestible.

The everyday struggle to find food has marked the destiny of mankind, causing wars, expansion and disappearance of peoples.

The type of food man eats depends on his environment. In cold countries people use fatty food because they need energy. In hot countries people use a lot of spices because they need to drink often.

Food is very important in many aspects of life like religion and medicine.

Today we are more and more conscious that our health depends on what food we eat, so we pay great attention to the quality and the quantity of the food we eat.

 

 

 FOOD AND HEALTH

Food and health are most important for everybody’ s life.

The food we eat is vital to life

1)              eating is a pleasurable experience

2)              food provides the essential nutrients

 

The food industry spends millions of pounds in promoting its products,  often with little regard to the health of consumers.

 

Food, physical activity and diseases are strictly related.

Diseases such as cancer,diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, strokes, osteoporosis are increasing in the western countries.

In the last twenty years there is a prevalence of obesity and overweight among Europeans and Americans.

 

healthy lifestyle is defined not only by the food we eat but also by regular physical activity.

 

good diet and regular physical activity can reduce the risks of diseases such as: cancer,diabetes,hypertension,strokes,etc

 

healthy lifestyle is defined not only by the food we eat but also by  regular physical activity.

Other relevant factors for a healthy life are:

 

-    eating with friends and family

-    enjoying traditional food from other countries

 

1) Is diet the only key to fitness?

No it isn’t. To be fit ,a balance diet is important but you must also practise sport and physical activity

 

2)What other elements are important to stay healthy?

To be healthy it is important to  follow a balanced diet, practise sport and have a good social life.

 

3)Why are so many people overweight especially in the western countries?

This is due to a sedentary life and a wrond diet

 

4) Which diseases are linked to a wrong and sedentary life?

 

The most serius diseases connected to our way of eating are: cancer,diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, strokes, osteoporosis

 

 

 

 

HACCP

 

Haccp means hazard analysis of critical control points. It is an european law to prevent contamination in the food and beverage industry. To ensure food safety because hygiene is very important.
Food can be contaminated with germs an bacteria and it can be harmful to the customer's health.

Bacteria can be transmitted by

- dirt(such as dirty glasses or dishes)

-small animals (such as mice,cockroaches, flies,pigeons,and so on)

-burns or cuts


For example you can contaminate food if you don't wash your hands properly, or if you sneeze over food of if you cut different food with the same knife .

 

 

 

Hygiene is very important in the food and beverage industry. Restaurant pub and bar owners commit and office if they serve food whitch is harmful to the customers' health. To ensure food safety and to prevent food hazard Europe has established a set of general rules which is called HACCP.

 

It has 7 principles which are:

1)Analyse chimical, biological, and physical.

2)Identify critical critical points ( from the row stage of food, to its storing, processing, delivery and customers' consumption).

3)Establishing procedures in order to prevent, monitorate, connect and record information .  

 

 

HACCP

HACCP is a food safety system that prevents the safety of food from being compromised.

It was originally developed in the 1960’s by NASA and a group of food safety specialists.

HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points.

Food companies are obliged to draw up an HACCP plan in accordance with the European Hygiene Regulation. This plan should be based on7 basic principles:

§  Hazard Analysis

§  Critical Control Points

§  Critical Limits

§  Critical Control Monitoring

§  Corrective Action

§  Procedures

§  Record Keeping

HACCP can be applied to all processes throughout each stage of the food supply chain. This includes production, preparation, packaging and distribution.

As a food safety initiative, HACCP is a preventative system. It focuses on potential physical, chemical and biological hazards that could occur during the food manufacturing process and make the end product unsafe. A fundamental aim of the HACCP principles is to discover any potential hazards so that control measures can be designed. If necessary, these control measures would be put in place and reduce the risk of the hazards occurring.

1.    Hazard Analysis (Hazard = a danger or risk, something, a condition or a contaminant, that is dangerous and likely to cause damage)

A hazard that may be present in a product and can subsequently pose a threat to the health of the consumer

Hazard analysis is the initial process of identifying potential hazards that could occur at any stage of the food supply chain. Once the hazards have been identified, controls to prevent, eliminate or manage them must then be designed and applied.

A food safety hazard which needs to be identified and controlled is anything that causes food to become harmful or unsafe for human consumption. They are categorized as:

-       Physical: foreign objects in food that can cause harm when eaten, such asglass, packaging, jewellery, pest droppings, screws;

-       Chemical: water, food contact materials, cleaning agents, pest control substances, pesticides, biocides and food additives;

-       Biological: harmful bacteria(e.g., salmonella), viruses ((e.g., hepatitis A), parasites (e.g. trichinella) or PRIONS. Prions are infectious agents made of protein.

They cause diseases that may affect both animals and humans (e.g. BSE = BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY            CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE in humans when consuming cattle infected by BSE;

-       Allergenic(milk, eggs, nuts, wheat, fish, shellfish, etc)

The hazard identification isdone in two steps, first the identification of hazards, then an evaluation of the hazard. The hazardevaluationis a determination of the degree of risk to the user from the identified hazard.

2.    Critical Control Points

CCP stands for Critical Control Points:

Once the hazard is identified and evaluated, the team must identify critical control points. These are points where the hazard must be controlled and the risk can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level

A CCP can also monitor an individual parameter. For example, ensuring that all potential allergens are labelled on a food or that the garbage bins are cleaned and sanitised weekly.

3.    Critical Limits

Critical limits are the minimum and maximum limits of each separate CCP. These limits are set so that each hazard is managed safely in order to eliminate, prevent or manage food safety risks.

A critical limit marks the acceptability or unacceptability level of a CCP.

If this limit is ever exceeded corrective action must be taken, and all affected product controlled.

Your next step is to establish criteria for each critical control point. What criteria must be met to control the hazard at that point? Is it a minimum temperature?

For example, if it was critical to keep high-risk food out of the danger zone (between 5°C and 60°C), it would be acceptable to refrigerate meat at a temperature of 4 °C but unacceptable to refrigerate it at 8 °C.

4.    Critical Control Monitoring

The monitoring of each CCP is essential to make sure that hazards don’t go beyond the critical limits set.

The monitoring that takes place at the critical control points is essential to the effectiveness of the HACCP program. The monitoring program will be made up of physical measurement or observations that can be done in a timely manner, to provide the information in a time frame that allows you to take action and control product if an out of control situation occurs.

The ways that CCPs are monitored will vary, however, some examples might be:

§  Using a probe thermometer daily to check the temperature of a fridge or freezer.

§  Scheduling regular pest inspections to maintain bait traps.

§  Having staff record certain cleaning procedures in the Food Safety Program.

 

5.    Corrective Action

The corrective actions may be need to be applied to the product and/or process

Corrective action must be taken if a hazard exceeds its critical limits. Rules must be established that outline the corrective steps that must be taken if a hazard does exceed its limits.

These actions are put in place to ensure that no harm comes as a result of the hazard exceeding its critical limit.

An example of this is the ‘2 - 4 Hour Rule’. According to the rule, any food which remains in the danger zone for more than 4 hours must be discarded. In this instance, discarding the food is considered corrective action.

The action or actions taken have two purposes:1.to control any nonconforming product resulting from the loss of control2.to identify the cause, eliminate it and prevent the situation from reoccurring. By identifying the corrective action before an out of control situation occurs, you are prepared to take action quickly if and when it does occur.

6.    Procedures

Procedures are to be put in place to ensure that all businesses throughout the entire food supply-chain are successfully producing a product that’s safe for humans to eat. The HACCP principles were designed so that they could be applied to each individual business throughout the food manufacturing process. It’s the responsibility of the business to ensure that they have adapted and applied the HACCP principles to each necessary aspect of their business.

Verification is a periodic check to determine whether the HACCP approach is effective or for checking whether control of a CCP is effective. Verification therefore shows whether the method of working leads to sufficient levels of safety.

7.    Record Keeping

The HACCP principles state that comprehensive, up-to-date records must be kept. Depending on your business, often these records are kept together in a live-document called the Food Safety Plan. Some examples of records that your business might need to keep could be:

§  temperature charts and logs

§  storage logs

§  cleaning schedules

§  employee qualifications

§  pest control logs

 

Depending on a business’s relevant legislation, a business might be required to present these records to their governing food authority for inspection.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOOD SERVICE HYGIENE

 

Some people carry (have) staphylococcus bacteria in their nose and mouth.

Each time they sneeze or touch their nose or mouth, bacteria are transferred to food, drinks, glasses. 


•Hygiene in food and beverage is extremely important.
•Restaurant environments (ambienti) can be contaminated with germs.
•Bacteria on raw food are usually killed during cooking, but germs are trasmitted from raw to cooked food, for example using a knife to cut raw meat, then slicing (affettate) bread with the same knife. 
•Bacteria live in dust and dirt, but flies,ants,spiders,cockroaches (scarafaggi) ,mice (topi) rats and pigeons are all vehicles which transport them (bacteria) to food and drinks.
-sneezing over food and drinks, touching food without washing hands are all means to transmit bacteria .
•Glasses and dishes sometimes are not washed properly.
•Detergents can be mistaken  (scambiati ) for food 
•Sometimes you may have cuts  (tagli) and burns (bruciature) 
•Sometimes infections can contaminate public environments  (ambienti pubblici).

 

words

verbs

Raw food: cibo crudo.

Cooked food:cibo cotto

Bacteria:germi

mouse: topo/ mice: topi

flies: mosche

knife: coltello

knives: coltelli

 

To Sneeze: starnutire

Are killed:vengono uccisi (forma passiva)

Are transmitted: vengono trasmessi (forma passiva)

Are trasferred: vengono trasferiti (forma passiva)

Can be contaminated: possono essere contaminate (forma passiva)

To slice: affettare

Can be mistaken: possono essere scambiati

 

 

 

HACCP and Safety Procedures (sicurezza sanitaria)

 

HACCP and Safety Procedures (sicurezza sanitaria)
Customer health safety is very important, as well as hygiene in the Food and Beverage Industry must be treated with great attention. Pub and bar owners, commit an offence (=reato) if they serve food or drink that is harmful (=pericoloso) to the customers'  health. An international set of general rules has been established, it is the HACCP (pronuncia: ha-sip):
H= hazard
A= analysis
C= critical
C= control
P= points
It is a (preventive) system used in food Industry to ensure food safety.
It is a set of rules which aim at identifying potential hazards associated with food.
Critical Control Point means a pointstep in which control is essential to prevent, reduce or eliminate food hazards.

 

Exercise
Answer the following questions:
1) What do some people have in their nose and mouth?
Cos'hanno alcune persone nel loro naso e nella bocca?
2) How restaurant enviroments can be contaminated?
Gli ambienti del ristorante come possono essere contaminati?
3) How can bacteria be transmitted from raw to cooked food?
Come vengono trasmessi i batteri dal cibo crudo al cibo cotto?
4) Where do bacteria live and which animals can transmit them?
Dove vivono i batteri e quali animali possono trasmetterli?
5) What must be properly washed in the kitchen?
Che cosa deve essere lavato in modo appropriato in cucina?

 

 

  1) They have staphylococcus bacteria.
2) They can be contaminated with germs.
3)Bacteria can be trasmetted from raw to cooked food, for example using a knife to cut raw meat and then slicing bread with the same knife.
4)Bacteria live in dust and dirt and on animals such as mice,flies,pigeons,beetles,ants.
5)In the kitchen Ggasses and dishes must be washed.

 

 

                     

 

 

 

 

FOOD INTOLERANCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

= CHEMICAL REACTION

 

IT IS NOT RELATED TO THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

 

The body cannot properly digest the food that is eaten or a particular food might irritate the digestive system

 

 

                              

 

 

 

 

 

SYMPTOMS:

Nausea, gas, cramps, abdominal pain, diarrhea, irritability, nervousness, headaches

 

 

 

                     

 

 

 

 

FOOD ALLERGY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

= IMMUNE RESPONSE

 

IT AFFECTS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

 

It happens when the body’s immune system (which normally fights infections) sees the food as an invader                        

               Allergic reaction that is a response form the immune system in which chemicals like histamine are released in the body

 

 

 

                              

 

 

 

 

 

SYMPTOMS:

Breathing problems, throat tightness, abdominal pain, hives, swelling, drop in blood pressure, hoarseness

 

 

 

 

 

Both food intolerance and allergy are a negative reaction to a food

 

 

 

 

PAGAN AND RELIGIOUS FESTIVITIES

During the year there are many festive days. Halloween is a pagan rite of Celtic origin. It is celebrated on the night of October, 31 (the thirty first).

Christmas, Easter and Lent are the most important Christian festivities.

Lent starts on Ash Wednesday and last 40 (forty) days to remember the period which Jesus Christ spent in the desert.

 

HALLOWEEN

Halloween is a famous pagan rite of Celtic origin. It is now celebrated all over Europe on the night of October, 31 (the thirty first)

It is associated with the winter fruit and nuts which were roasted in front of huge bonfires. This feast is linked to ghosts and witches. People think that the spirit of the dead wandered about.

The image of Halloween is a carved, empty pumpkin with a light candle inside. People dress up in sinister costumes and go to parties. Children dress like ghosts and go  from house to house demanding “trick or treat?”.  If you don’t give them a treat (sweets or money) they will play a trick on you.

 

 

 THANKSGIVING

Thanksgiving is one  of the most important festivity in America, Canada and Britain.

It is celebrated every year on the last Thursday of November.

It was first celebrated in 1624 by the Pilgrim Fathers to thank God for the good harvest and for helping them survive their first year in America.

Pilgrim Fathers were a group of English people who in September 1623 crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Plymouth, in England, to North America in a ship called The Mayflower. They left England because they wanted freedom of religion.

The Pilgrim decided to celebrate the good harvest with the Indians by having a meal together .

People usually spend  Thanksgiving day at home with their families. The traditional menu is very rich.

Traditional dishes are turkey, baked ham, chicken pie, pumpkin pie, served with sweet potatoes and raisin or cramberry sauce and followed by succulent desserts such as plum pudding.

 

 

CHRISTMAS

Christmas dinner is the most important festivity of the year. Celebrations start on Christmas Eve(24th,December) and it ends on Boxing Day (26th, December)

Christmas is connected with traditional dishes and the giving of presents. Children are happy. They hope that, on Christmas Eve, 24th December, Father Christmas will bring them present. 

Today the traditional British Christmas dishes are roast turkey with chestnut stuffing, roast potatoes, Brussels sprouts, bread sauce, bacon rolls and gravy    and  Christmas pudding.

The tradition  of using turkey is relatively recent and it comes from America. Before the traditional dish served at Christmas was stuffed goose. Turkey became more popular because there is much more meat and less fat than on a goose.

Preparing Christmas pudding takes a long time and people start preparing it a month earlier.

The name Boxing Day comes from the old custom of giving boxes of food, clothing or other goods to workers and servants  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE UNITED KINGDOM 

The British Isles is the geographical name for Great Britain, Ireland and all the small isleland off the coast (Channel Islands, The Isle of Man, the Orkney and the Hebrides)

Enlish is the officil language but Welsh and Gaelic are still spoken.

The United Kingdom is composed of England, Wales and Scotlandand Northern ireland (or Ulster in Gaelic)

Southern Ireland (or Eire) is an indipendent republic and it is not part of the United Kingdom.

The U.K. is a costitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The Head of State is the Queen. She represents the unity of the Nation but she has limited power. Infact the legislative power belongs to the Parliament. The Queen can only give her royal assent.

The British Parliament is composed of 2 Houses: th House of Commons and the House of Lords.

Even if the U.K. is not a big country, it is very important.

During the Second World War the U.K gave asylum to may polical and religiuos refugees.

 

In the 1950as and 1960s a lot of people moved to U.K. especially from countries which were part of the British Empire.

Later many people from all over the world moved to the U.K. to work. 

Today The U.K has a very cosmopolitan society

 

 

 

 

 

IRELAND

 

Ireland is a small but beautiful and charming country full of cultural riches to be discovered.

HISTORY:

Ireland hides quite a troubled history  both for religious and economic reasons:

 16 th century: Henry VIII ( King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 to 1509) and his daughter Elisabeth I ( Queen of england and Ireland from 1558 to 1603) tried to impose Anglicanism upon Ireland which was instead a Catholic country.

17th century: English kings sent a remarkable number of Protestant settlers to Northern Ireland (Ulster province). They were given the best lands thus provoking discontent among the Irish population.

The Catholic King James II (king of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1685 to 1688) was supported by the Catholic Irish even during the so called  Glorious Revolution, when James II was deposed by the Parliament and replaced by the protestant William of Orange.

1690: William of Orange and James II clashed at the Battle of the Boyne (ireland). William of Orange won and his victory is still celebrated by the Protestants of Ireland (Orangemen).

1922: A few years later the Easter Rising (Dublin 1916) Ireland was divided into two differnt countries:

Republic of Ireland in the South ( Eire) mainly Catholic

Northern Ireland (Ulster) mainly Protestant. It is part of the United Kingdom

The Troubles ( the ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland) continued until 1998 with many attempts by the I.R.A (Irish Republican Army) to free Ulster from the UK.

 

Geography:

Although this recent past of violence and strife (conflict) Ireland still remains a charming green emerald warmed by kind people and mild weather.

 

Economy:

During the 19th century Ireland underwent economic highs and lows.

A series of famines (carestie) hit its inhabitants. The most severe took place in 1845 and lasted until 1849. This is called  The Great Irish Famine. It was the result of a potato disease (blight, micosi)that caused the potato crop to fail.

As a consequence about one million people died and another million emigrated to the United States.

Nowadays Ireland is a modern, knowledge-based economy focusing on services, high tech industries  and trade.

Eire joined the Euro in 1999 while Norther Ireland still keeps the British pound.

 

Food and tradition

In Ireland you can find a very welcoming atmosphere. People like  socializing and hanging out with friends. Irish cities and towns are full of pubs, hotels, Bed and Breakfasts, country houses and manor houses where tourists and guests are always well received.

Ireland is steeped in legend: Irish people are very proud of their celtic origin and identity. The Celtic heritage has been kept alive in spite of time and change.

Irish people also love their own food and drink specialities such as : lamb, home-cured ham, bacon, potato bread, soda bread, brown bread, potato apple cake, lobster and oyster, Irish Whiskey, Irish Mist, Irish coffee and, above all, their dark heavy beer: Guinness.

 

 

Summary

Ireland is a beautiful and green island in north-western Europe. It is also called the Emerald Isle.

Irish history is very troubled for economic reasons and for the bloody religious struggle between Catholics and Protestants.

In 1922  it was divided into two different countries:

Republic of Ireland in the South ( Eire) mainly Catholic

Northern Ireland (Ulster) mainly Protestant. It is part of the United Kingdom

Eire joined the Euro in 1999 while Norther Ireland still keeps the British pound.

In Northern Ireland the conflict between Catholics and Protestants continued until 1998 with many attempts by IRA (Irish Republican Army) to free Ulster from the UK.

 

In the 19th century Ireland  was hit by famines, The worst famine was The Great Irish Famine (1845- 1849) it was the result of a potato disease.  About one million people died and another million emigrated to the U.S.A.

Nowadays Ireland is a modern and  high tech country.

Irish people are very welcoming and proud of their Celtic origin.

 

Irish people also love their own food and drink. Irish specialities are : lamb, home-cured ham, bacon, potato bread, soda bread, brown bread, potato apple cake, lobster and oyster, Irish Whiskey, Irish Mist, Irish coffee and especially their dark heavy beer: Guinness.